"For the United States to maximize its leverage it would need to overcome its reluctance to support the armed opposition". 1) I have been in the US since 1983, and Israel has been butchering Palestinians and Arabs non-stop since then, and I never EVER heard Heydemann or another of his fellow champions of the Free Syrian Army gangs dare say a word about Palestinian resistance (which at least had secular and progressive forces). 2) If Israel were to exterminate one million Palestinian tomorrow, I bet the farm that Heydemann and his fellow champions of the Free Syrian Army would never EVER dare utter a word of support for arming the Palestinian resistance. 3) It is noteworthy that Heydemann and his fellow champions of Free Syrian Army gangs never called for arming the Egyptian or Jordanian opposition--because both regimes had signed peace treaties with the Israeli enemy. 4) Next time Israel commits a massacre, someone should ask Heydemann and his fellow champions of Free Syrian Army if they would respond by calling on the US to arm Palestinians. 5) When Israel butchered Lebanese in 2006--or anytime before--I don't recall Heydemann or his fellow champions of the Free Syrian Army ever calling for arming the Lebanese resistance. 6) what is my point? My point is simple. Those kind of Western academics are willing to be pacifist and are willing to champion armed revolts IF--only IF--that would serve Israeli interests. That is the guiding criterion.